ANEMIA PERNISIOSA PDF

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The term “pernicious anemia” is an anachronism—it dates from the era when treatment had not yet been discovered, and the disease was fatal—but it remains in use for megaloblastic anemia resulting from vitamin B12 deficiency due to lack of intrinsic factor (IF). Thus, pernicious. Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for . Definisi Anemia pernisiosa adalah kelainan autoimun yang menyebabkan terganggunya. Download as PPTX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for Anemia Pernisiosa adalah kondisi medis yang ditandai dengan jumlah sel darah merah.


Anemia Pernisiosa Pdf

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Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Anemia pernisiosa merupakan anemia karena defisiensi B Manifestasi klinis anemia megaloblastik. Harga anemia megaloblastik pada ibu hamil pdf lotto. Pernicious anemia, disease in which the production of red blood cells ( erythrocytes) is impaired as a result of the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12, which is.

Metabolisme lemak dan karbohidrat.

Biosintesa asam lemak tidak jenuh. Sumber vitamin B6 : Daging, unggas, ikan, kentang, ubi jalar, sayuran. Defisiensi Biotin : bila terlalu banyak mengkonsumsi putih telur mentah.

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Peka terhadap cahaya. Paling tidak stabil.

Rusak oleh pemanasan Fungsi : folasin dirubah oleh tubuh menjadi bentuk Koenzim yang penting pada : - sintesa DNA.

Mengandung kobalt.

Anemia Megaloblastik Pada Ibu Hamil Pdf

Bentuk kobalamine. Vitamin B12 levels can be falsely high or low and data for sensitivity and specificity vary widely.

Normal serum levels may be found in cases of deficiency where myeloproliferative disorders , liver disease , transcobalamin II deficiency, or intestinal bacterial overgrowth are present. Low levels of serum vitamin B12 may be caused by other factors than B12 deficiency, such as folate deficiency , pregnancy , oral contraceptive use, haptocorrin deficiency, and myeloma. Intrinsic factor antibodies are much less sensitive than parietal cell antibodies, but they are much more specific.

They are found in about half of PA patients and are very rarely found in other disorders. These antibody tests can distinguish between PA and food-B12 malabsorption.

Methylmalonic acid MMA can be measured in both the blood and urine, whereas homocysteine is only measured in the blood. An increase in both MMA and homocysteine can distinguish between B12 deficiency and folate deficiency because only homocysteine increases in the latter.

Pernicious anemia

Decreased pepsinogen I levels or a decreased pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II ratio may also be found, although these findings are less specific to PA and can be found in food-B12 malabsorption and other forms of gastritis.

For example, a Bdeficient state which causes megaloblastic anemia and which may be mistaken for classical PA may be caused by infection with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum , possibly due to the parasite's competition with host for vitamin B This historic test consisted, in its first step, of taking an oral dose of radiolabelled vitamin B12, followed by quantitation of the vitamin in the patient's urine over a hour period via measurement of the radioactivity.

A second step of the test repeats the regimen and procedure of the first step, with the addition of oral intrinsic factor. A patient with PA presents lower than normal amounts of intrinsic factor; hence, addition of intrinsic factor in the second step results in an increase in vitamin B12 absorption over the baseline established in the first. The Schilling test distinguished PA from other forms of B12 deficiency, [23] specifically, from Imerslund-Grasbeck Syndrome IGS , a vitamin Bdeficiency caused by mutations in cubilin the cobalamin receptor.

During B12 deficiency, this reaction cannot proceed, which leads to the accumulation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This accumulation depletes the other types of folate required for purine and thymidylate synthesis, which are required for the synthesis of DNA. Inhibition of DNA replication in red blood cells results in the formation of large, fragile megaloblastic erythrocytes.

The neurological aspects of the disease are thought to arise from the accumulation of methylmalonyl CoA due to the requirement of B12 as a cofactor to the enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase.

A diagnosis of PA first requires demonstration of megaloblastic anemia by conducting a full blood count and blood smear, which evaluates the mean corpuscular volume MCV , as well the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC. Vitamin B12 levels can be falsely high or low and data for sensitivity and specificity vary widely.

Normal serum levels may be found in cases of deficiency where myeloproliferative disorders , liver disease , transcobalamin II deficiency, or intestinal bacterial overgrowth are present. Low levels of serum vitamin B12 may be caused by other factors than B12 deficiency, such as folate deficiency , pregnancy , oral contraceptive use, haptocorrin deficiency, and myeloma. Intrinsic factor antibodies are much less sensitive than parietal cell antibodies, but they are much more specific.

They are found in about half of PA patients and are very rarely found in other disorders.

These antibody tests can distinguish between PA and food-B12 malabsorption. Methylmalonic acid MMA can be measured in both the blood and urine, whereas homocysteine is only measured in the blood.

An increase in both MMA and homocysteine can distinguish between B12 deficiency and folate deficiency because only homocysteine increases in the latter.

Mechanisms in pernicious anaemia.

Decreased pepsinogen I levels or a decreased pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II ratio may also be found, although these findings are less specific to PA and can be found in food-B12 malabsorption and other forms of gastritis.Mengandung kobalt.

A patient with PA presents lower than normal amounts of intrinsic factor; hence, addition of intrinsic factor in the second step results in an increase in vitamin B12 absorption over the baseline established in the first.

B12 is required by enzymes for two reactions: the conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA , and the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Weidner, Noel, et al.

Many of the signs and symptoms are due to anemia itself, when anemia is present. However, B12 deficiency after gastric surgery does not usually become a clinical issue.

Pada sintesa kolin dan metionin 3. Pernicious anemia is in most cases associated with an inflammation of the stomach called autoimmune gastritis.